- Kuhusu Sisi
- Kituo cha Habari
According to National livestock population census 2014, Arusha region had a total of 1,373,839 cattle, 1,497,361 goats, 1,138,852 sheep, 20,580 pigs and 1,673,702 chicken, whereby Ngorongoro District had a largest number of cattle population of 383,386 (27.9%} of all cattle population found in the Region and Arusha City had the smallest number of cattle (49,071 that is 3.6%) of total cattle population in the region. However poultry keeping in Arusha region has been the most economic activity done both in the urban and rural areas, the main activities done by low income earners is on poultry keeping and contributes significantly to poverty alleviation and in improvement of food security with high nutrition.Growth of this industry for the past 10 years has involved a lot of women and youth and provides a strong base for women and youth empowerment. Likewise simple changes in the management of villages, chicken can significantly improve production and living standards of many rural families in terms of enhanced nutrition and income generating through the sale of surplus chicken and eggs.However, poultry keeping in Arusha urban is dominated by broilers while in rural areas is dominated by indigenous chicken who are prone to diseases compared to broilers.
Regarding livestock infrastructure, The Arusha region has a veterinary centre at the level of the region while in all surrounding District provide veterinary services through their livestock departments. Arusha region as a whole has 58 veterinary health centers, 139 Dips and 124 crushes, water sources including cattle troughs, 13 hides/skin sheds, 2 abattoirs, 43 livestock markets, 19 slaughter house, 139 slaughter slabs, and 158 charcoal dams.However, like any other country in Africa, livestock diseases are very challenging towards development of this industry. Livestock diseases are among the most serious constraint in the region and its surrounding District including its neighboring regions and countries like Kenya, whereby any outbreak of livestock disease should alert all livestock keepers to take precautions.Common livestock diseases include East Cost Fever which causes 49.0% of all cattle illness and 59.2% of deaths, on average for every 10 cattle morbidity cases reported caused by ECF one cattle death also occurs.Measures are being taken and directed at supplying vaccine or drugs for ECF, including providing more education to livestock keepers on improving dipping services, not only for ECF but also for other cattle diseases.
Goat diseases are also common in Arusha region especially the Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia (CCPP), Helmintosis and Goat pox are the sources of morbidity and mortality in goats, and this is because most goats suffer poor health which causes death. The region had managed to supply adequate vaccines and drugs to curb the two diseases and this goes hand in hand in providing education to goat keepers including improving livestock infrastructures.
Sheep diseases are also one of the challenges to sheep keepers as about 61.1% of all sheep morbidity and 80.4% of mortality cases reported are caused by Peste des Petitis Ruminant, the best solution for this disease is through controlling its spread by providing vaccination and education to sheep keepers.
Poultry diseases has been common in Arusha region and this is due to a big number of poultry keepers whereby if a disease starts from one corner of the District in the region , it spreads easily to the other Districts. According to the records collected in year 2010, 2012 and 2014 Arusha recorded a total of 5,117 morbidity and 1,998 mortality cases of poultry/chicken cases accounted for 39.1% of all morbidity cases reported. There were 39% poultry deaths caused by New Castle diseases which is the main serious poultry disease in the region. The livestock sector faces a lot of challenges in the region including
-The need for sustainable land use, water, pastures and rangelands
-Availability of public/private sector investments and financing for improvement of livestock value chain productivity and efficiency/(production, marketing and processing)
-Control of livestock diseases
-Development of livestock services such as extension services, capacity building, researches, farmers empowerment and livestock infrastructure improvement.