Availability of adequate supply of clean potable water for the residents of Arusha Region particularly those residing in Arusha Municipality are of utmost importance. Arusha Municipality is host to a number of International Organizations and often a host to many International Meetings and Conferences. According to the Population and Housing Census results for year 2002, 68 percent of the total private households in Arusha Region used piped water as the main source of drinking water; 53 percent of the rural households and about 96 percent of the urban households were using piped water. By year 2007 a total of 588,468 people were being served with piped water as opposed to 369,771 people in year 2004 an increase of about 59.1 percent.
Access to Drinking Clean Water
According to the National Sample Census of Agriculture 2002/03 results, the main source of drinking water for rural agricultural households in Arusha region was piped water. About 58 percent of households use piped water during the dry season and 68 percent of the households during the wet season. This is followed by surface water 21 percent during the wet season and 18 percent in the dry season.Unprotected spring 9 percent of households during the wet season and 11 percent in the dry season. Unprotected well 4 percent of households in the wet season and 3 percent during dry season while protected wells had 2 percent of households using the source for both seasons. Covered spring was used as a main source by 2 percent of the households in both seasons.
Percentage of Households using Piped Water as the Main Source of Drinking Water by District.
The results of the 2002 Population and Housing Census at the district level show that the main source of drinking water in Monduli, Arumeru, Arusha and Karatu districts was piped water while for Ngorongoro district it was rivers and streams. In the rural areas of Monduli district, piped water accounted for 29 percent while in urban areas the situation was much better as 98 percent of all households used piped water as the main source of drinking water.
In Arumeru district piped water accounted for 71 percent in the rural areas while in the urban area it was 91 percent. For Arusha district, piped water accounted for 98 percent in both rural and urban areas. For Karatu district rural areas piped water accounted for 53 percent while in the urban areas the situation was better as 99 percent used piped water as the main source of drinking water.
Ngorongoro district’s situation is different. While in rural areas rivers and streams accounted for 32 percent, in the urban areas 58 percent of all households used piped water as the main source of drinking water (see the figure left).
About 46 percent of the rural agricultural households in Arusha region obtained drinking water within a distance of less than one kilometer during wet season
compared to 38 percent of the households during the dry season. However, 54 percent of the agricultural households obtained drinking water from a distance of one or more kilometers during wet season compared to 62 percent of households in the dry season. The most common distance from the source of drinking water was between 1 and 2 kilometers.
Rural Water Supply
Water Supply in the rural areas of Arusha Region consists of piped water, springs, shallow wells, rainwater, bore holes, river water, dams and charco dams. According to the results emanating from the 2002 Population Census, 53 percent of the rural households responded that they were using piped water as their main source of drinking water and about 16 percent were using water from river/stream; while the rest used other sources of water supply cited above in this paragraph. Number and Type of Rural Water Sources by District, Arusha Region for Year 2007 are shown in Table 1 below.
In order to provide fairly adequate supply of potable water to the residents of Arusha region, different types of water technologies are being used in the various districts of Arusha region. Gravity piped water is the commonest technology supplying most water to the rural population in Arusha region.
Sanitation facilities in Arusha Region though not available in all households, are fairly well spread, a total of 61.2 percent of the population of Arusha region use toilets of one type or the other. In the majority of the districts, many of the toilets are pit latrines and a few water closets (WCs); it is only in Arusha Municipality where 3,439 households or 14.2 percent have been connected to the main sewerage system in the Municipality.