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The main indigenous ethinic groups are the Maasai, Iraqw, Arusha, and Meru. Others significant minorities are the Sonjo, Chagga, Pare, Gorowa, Rangi and the Hadzabe. The majority of the Iraqws are found in Karatu district while the Meru and Arusha aredominant in Arumeru district as well as Arusha Municipality. The Maasai on the other hand is the major ethinic group in Monduli, Ngorongoro and Longido districts. The Hadzabe (Tindiga) people are mostly found in Karatu district.This group is of special interest as it is still dependant for its food on hunting and collection of wild plants and honey. The Sonjo, found in Ngorongoro district have advanced from living on hunting and collecting wild plants to herding the growing of maize, cassava, beans and sweet potatoes.

 

 


 

Population Size and Growth

 

 

Like most regions on Tanzania Mainland, the population of Arusha region has experienced significant growth. Table 1.6 shows that the region had 1,288,088 people in 2002 compared to 744,497 inhabitants in the 1988 resulting in a significant increase of 543,591 people (73 percent) during the intercensal period. In 2002, the region had 3.8 percent of the total population of Tanzania Mainland which was 33,461,849. However, the projections for 2007 put the regional population at 1,522,974 out of which 50.6 percent are females.

 

When compared to other regions on the Mainland, Arusha region is the 8th least populous region (See Table 1 below).

Table 1: Distribution of Population and Growth Rates by Region 1988 and 2002:Tanzania Mainland
Region
Population (Number)
Increase 1988 – 2002
1988
2002
Number of
ncrease
Rate
(Percent)
% Average
Annual
Growth rate
Dodoma
1,235,327
1,692,025
456,698
37.0
2.2
Arusha
744,135
1,288,088
543,953
73.1
3.9
Kilimanjaro
1,104,673
1,376,702
272,029
24.6
1.6
Tanga
1,280,212
1,636,280
356,068
27.8
1.8
Morogoro
1,220,564
1,753,362
532,798
43.7
2.6
Pwani
636,103
885,017
248,914
39.1
2.4
Dar es salaam
1,360,865
2,487,288
1,126,423
82.8
4.3
Lindi
646,494
787,624
141,130
21.8
1.4
Mtwara
889,100
1,124,481
235,381
26.5
1.7
Ruvuma
779,875
1,113,715
333,840
42.8
2.5
Iringa
1,193,074
1,490,892
297,818
25.0
1.6
Mbeya
1,476,278
2,063,328
587,050
39.8
2.4
Singida
792,387
1,086,748
294,361
37.1
2.3
Tabora
1,036,150
1,710,465
674,315
65.1
3.6
Rukwa
698,718
1,136,354
437,636
62.6
3.5
Kigoma
856,770
1,674,047
817,277
95.4
4.8
Shinyanga
1,763,800
2,796,630
1,032,830
58.6
3.3
Kagera
1,313,594
2,028,157
714,563
54.4
3.1
Mwanza
1,876,635
2,929,644
1,053,009
56.1
3.2
Mara
946,418
1,363,397
416,979
44.1
2.6
Manyara
604,035
1,037,605
433,570
71.8
3.9
Tanzania Mainland
22,455,207
33,461,603
11,006,642
49.0
2.8

 

 

 


 

Population Size and Growth

 

Compared to the tanzania Mainland population doubling interval, the Arusha region’s population doubling interval is getting shorter. For the Mainland the 1967 population doubled after 22 years while the 1978 population doubled in 25 years. On the other hand, the Arusha region’s 1967 population doubled in 1987 i.e. after 20 years. While the 1978 population doubled in1997 i.e after 19 years.

 

Table 2 below shows that Arusha region is among the regions with the highest popgrowth ratesulation. Other regions are Dar es Salaam, Manyara, Tabora, Rukwa, and Shinyanga regions. Because of refugees’ influx, Kigoma is now also a fast growing region. Arusha region has maintained a higher growth rate than that of the Mainland. In 1967/78 the growth rate for Arusha region was 3.8 percent as compared to 3.2 percent for the Mainland. It remained at 3.8 percent over the 1978 -1988 period compared to the Mainland’s out over 2.8 and in the 1988-2002 intercensal period Arusha population growth was 3.9 percent compared to 2.8 percent for the Mainland. Together with Manyara region, Arusha region is ranked third after Kigoma (4.8) and (4.3) for Dar es Salaam.

 

 

 

 

Table 3 shows the population size and growth for Arusha region by district for over the intercensal period 1988 to 2002. It may be observed that the population was unevenly distributed among the districts. Arumeru was the most populous district throughout this period followed by the urban district of Arusha. Longido was the least populous district followed by Ngorongoro.

 

Table 2: Average Annual Growth Rates of the Population over the Inter-censal Periods; 
1967-1978, 1978-1988 and 1988-2002, by Region
Region
Average Annual Growth Rate (Percent)
Difference in Annual Rates
1967-1978
1978-1988
1988-2002
(1)
(2)
Tanzania Mainland
3.2
2.8
2.8
-0.5
0.1
Arusha
3.8
3.8
3.9
0.0
0.2
Dodoma
2.9
2.4
2.2
-0.5
-0.2
Kilimanjaro
2.9
2.0
1.6
-0.9
-0.4
Tanga
2.7
2.1
1.8
-0.6
-0.3
Morogoro
2.9
2.6
2.6
-0.3
0.0
Pwani
1.7
2.1
2.4
0.4
0.3
Dar es salaam
7.8
4.8
4.3
-3.0
-0.5
Lindi
2.1
2.0
1.4
0.0
-0.6
Mtwara
2.0
1.4
1.7
-0.6
0.3
Ruvuma
3.2
3.3
2.5
0.1
-0.7
Iringa
2.7
2.5
1.6
-0.1
-1.0
Mbeya
3.3
3.1
2.4
-0.1
-0.7
Singida
2.7
2.6
2.3
-0.1
-0.3
Tabora
4.4
2.4
3.6
-2.1
1.2
Rukwa
4.5
4.4
3.5
-0.1
-0.9
Kigoma
2.9
2.8
4.8
-0.1
2.0
Shinyanga
3.5
2.9
3.3
-0.6
0.4
Kagera
3.9
2.6
3.1
-1.3
0.5
Mwanza
2.8
2.6
3.2
-0.2
0.6
Mara
2.6
2.7
2.6
0.1
-0.1
Manyara
N/A
N/A
3.9
-
-
 
 
Table 3: Population Size and Growth Rates by District; for Arusha Region from 1988 to 2002
District
Land Area
(sq. kms.s.)
1988 Pop. Census
2002 Pop. Census
Growth Rate
Number
%
Number
%
1978 - 1988
1988 - 2002
Monduli
6,419.0
68,549
9.2
110,442
8.6
4.1*
3.9*
Arumeru
2,896.0
321,835
43.2
514,651
40.0
3.1
3.4
Arusha
93.0
134,708
18.1
281,608
21.9
4.5
5.4
Karatu
3,300.0
109,887
14.8
177,951
13.8
3.3
3.5
Ngorongoro
14,036.0
68,775
9.2
129,362
10.0
3.9
4.5
Longido
7,782.0
40,457
5.4
74,074
5.8
N/A
N/A
Total
34,526.0
744,479
100
1,288,088
100
3.6
4.0
* Includes Longido district
Bonus William Hill
Bonus Ladbrokes
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